**SELECT HINTS for PS 4**

Problem 1 and 4.1 44. Recall the definition of linear combination -
we set up the system where the columns of the coefficient matrix M are
the column vectors: [u1,u2,u3]=M, and
M**x**=**b**, where b is the vector you wish to know whether
can be written as a linear combination. Then solve this system
any way you like for the unknown variables in the column vector **x**,
and relate your answer to what the problem originally asked for.
See practice problem solutions 4.1 35 and 43 up on ASULearn for similar
problems and a review of various methods for solution, although you will
just choose one for your writeup. Then in Problem 1, use commands like

with(plots):

col1:=spacecurve({[2*t,3*t,5*t,t=0..1]}):

display(col1,col2, col3,col4)

and rotate to check whether they are all in the same plane

Cement Mixing:
**Note that "In Maple" means that you must nicely type
all the parts (a through d) in Maple - text comments too.**

You can create column vectors by using

with(LinearAlgebra):

u:=Vector([1,2,3,4,5]):

You can create a matrix of defined
column vectors u, v and w
and then reduce that matrix by typing it in directly, as usual, or by using

M:=Matrix([u,v,w]):

ReducedRowEchelonForm(M);

**Part A**
Given the proportions of Cement, Water, Sand, Gravel and Fly
Ash that you obtain from calculating 3*S+5*A+2*L in Maple , discuss
the strength (low water to cement ratio),
workability (high sand to gravel ratio),
and durability (high fly ash to cement ratio) of the mix.
For each criteria (like strength) compute the ratio and compare it to
the ratio of that given in S, A, and L. (So, for strength, is the
mix as strong or stronger as superstrong S or is it weaker like A, or
even weaker like L?)

**Part B** The
Span{S,A,L} represents ALL linear combinations of S, A and L, so this represents all of the mixes that are combinations of these three basic mixtures. By changing the coefficients, we can obtain mixes of varying workability, durability, and strength. (You will explore more on this in the next problem set.)

**Part C**
We are asking whether the given custom mix can be written as a linear
combination of the column vectors S, A, and L. Recall that if we
form the system M**x**=**b**, where M is the matrix whose columns
are [S, A, L], and **b** is the custom mix, then we can solve
the the unknown variables in **x**. Since M is a 5x3 matrix, and
**b** is a 5x1 vector, we know that the mixing matrix M will act
on a 3x1 column vector, and by matching up the units we can see
that it will have the entries [number of scoops of Type S,
number of scoops of Type A, and number of scoops of Type L],
(For example, if we look at the first row of M
acting on **x**
and giving us the first entry in the 5x1 column vector,
we see that
the amount (in grams) of cement per scoop of Type S *x1 +
the amount (in grams) of cement per scoop of Type A *x2 +
the amount (in grams) of cement per scoop of Type L *x3 = the amount of
cement (in grams) in the mixture we create,
and so x1 is the number of scoops of S, x2 is the number of scoops of A,
and x3 is the number of scoops of L.)
a good check for M is that
each column of M should contain 60 grams, since that is the weight of a
measuring scoop.

Here we want 6000 grams of a custom mix with the proportions of cement, water, sand, gravel, and fly ash: 18:10:19:8:5.
Notice that there are 60 grams in this mix (by adding 18+10+19+8+5), and
so if we want 6000 grams, then we must multiply the proportions by 100.
Then we want the scoops of each of the basic
mixes (S, A, and L) needed to create this mix which has 1800 grams of cement,
1000 grams of water, 1900 grams of sand, 800 grams of gravel and 500 grams
of fly ash. Thus, we want to solve for the 3x1 vector so that
M times the vector
= the 5x1 column vector with the entries (1800,1000,1900,800,500).
Since M is a 5x3 matrix, we cannot use the
inverse
matrix method to solve, and so we
MUST use the augmented matrix method, which works for any number of
equations and unknowns. Then relate your answer to what the problem
originally asked, and also answer part D.

Problem 44 and beyond: You may wish to review class notes first.
For all of these problems, if it is a vector space/subspace,
justify why by quoting the book or class,
but if not, write out a complete
proof, ie, what violating it means,
and where each step follows logically from the
previous step, like in class. Some more specific comments for some of them:

Subset of R^{3} - Solutions to
5x-3y+6z=11. What are the vectors here --
they are {(x,y,z) so that x, y, and z satisfy the equation 5x-3y+6z=11}.
You are directed to use axiom 1. That means that you need to produce
2 specific 3x1 column vectors (with real numbers)
that can be plugged into the equation 2x-3y+4z and result in a 11.
Then continue following the method for disproving axiom 1. Be sure
to write your response as a proof.

4.3 number 14 part E. The problem says that we are looking at
nxn invertible or nonsingular matrices.
The problem specifies a general n, so it does not suffice to define n=2.
You may wish to look at
examples for n=2, n=3, n=4, n=5, and then go back to a general n.
Your final answer may
use nxn matrices like the nxn matrix of all 0s, the
nxn identity matrix with 1s along the diagonal
or a similar nxn matrix with general instructions you can
give (like the nxn matrix with 0s everywhere except the a11 spot,
where a11=1)...